Why have seemingly similar African countries developed very different forms of democratic party systems? Despite virtually ubiquitous conditions that are assumed to be challenging to democracy - low levels of economic development, high ethnic heterogeneity, and weak state capacity - nearly two dozen African countries have maintained democratic competition since the early 1990s. Yet the forms of party system competition vary greatly: from highly stable, nationally organized, well-institutionalized party systems to incredibly volatile, particularistic parties in systems with low institutionalization. To explain their divergent development, Rachel Beatty Riedl points to earlier authoritarian strategies to consolidate support and maintain power. The initial stages of democratic opening provide an opportunity for authoritarian incumbents to attempt to shape the rules of the new multiparty system in their own interests, but their power to do so depends on the extent of local support built up over time. The particular form of the party system that emerges from the democratic transition is sustained over time through isomorphic competitive pressures embodied in the new rules of the game, the forms of party organization and the structure of competition that shape party and voter behavior alike.
Once teetering on the brink of oblivion, the British Liberal Party has again re-established itself as a major force in national and local politics. David Dutton's approachable study offers new insights into the waning, near death and ultimate recovery of the Liberal Party from 1900 to the present day. Discussions of politics, philosophy and performance are all skilfully interwoven as Dutton demonstrates how the party has become, once more, a formidable player on the political stage.
This book provides a penetrating new study of the Labour Party's thinking on international relations, which probes the past, present and future of the party's approach to the international stage.
The foreign policy of the Labour Party is not only neglected in most histories of the party, it is also often considered in isolation from the party's origins, evolution and major domestic preoccupations. Yet nothing has been more divisive and more controversial in Labour's history than the party's foreign and defence policies and their relationship to its domestic programme.
Much more has turned on this than the generation of tempestuous conference debates. Labour's credentials as a credible prospect for Governmental office were thought to depend on a responsible approach to foreign and defence policy. Its exclusion from office was often said to stem from a failure to meet this test, as in the 1950s. The composition of Labour Cabinets was powerfully influenced by foreign and defence considerations, as was the centralization of power and decision-making within Labour Governments. The domestic achievements and failures of these periods in office were inextricably connected to international questions.
The Labour Party and Foreign Policy is recommended for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in British politics and European history.
This graphic novel tells the story of Demeter, the Greek goddess of the harvest, and her daughter, Persephone. Demeter rules over a perpetual summer on earth, where crops, trees, and flowers grow in abundance. Persephone, young and beautiful, unknowingly attracts the attention of the lonely god of the Underworld, Hades. Hades kidnaps Persephone, and a frantic Demeter searches in vain for her daughter. Finally, Demeter retreats to her temple in mourning. The goddess's sorrow causes the crops to die and the ground to freeze. The first winter falls over Greece. As people begin to starve, the other Olympian gods and goddesses try to convince Demeter to accept a marriage between Persephone and Hades. But Demeter will not give up her daughter forever to the Underworld. Finally a compromise is struck: Persephone will stay with Hades for half a year (winter). When she comes back from the Underworld to spend half a year with her mother, spring returns to earth.
"Lucy is throwing Ajax a birthday party. She remembers balloons, games, and cake. But something is missing. Will the party be ruined?"
Bucks Party Ideas Articles
Bucks Party Ideas Books