Why have seemingly similar African countries developed very different forms of democratic party systems? Despite virtually ubiquitous conditions that are assumed to be challenging to democracy - low levels of economic development, high ethnic heterogeneity, and weak state capacity - nearly two dozen African countries have maintained democratic competition since the early 1990s. Yet the forms of party system competition vary greatly: from highly stable, nationally organized, well-institutionalized party systems to incredibly volatile, particularistic parties in systems with low institutionalization. To explain their divergent development, Rachel Beatty Riedl points to earlier authoritarian strategies to consolidate support and maintain power. The initial stages of democratic opening provide an opportunity for authoritarian incumbents to attempt to shape the rules of the new multiparty system in their own interests, but their power to do so depends on the extent of local support built up over time. The particular form of the party system that emerges from the democratic transition is sustained over time through isomorphic competitive pressures embodied in the new rules of the game, the forms of party organization and the structure of competition that shape party and voter behavior alike.
This book provides a penetrating new study of the Labour Party's thinking on international relations, which probes the past, present and future of the party's approach to the international stage.
The foreign policy of the Labour Party is not only neglected in most histories of the party, it is also often considered in isolation from the party's origins, evolution and major domestic preoccupations. Yet nothing has been more divisive and more controversial in Labour's history than the party's foreign and defence policies and their relationship to its domestic programme.
Much more has turned on this than the generation of tempestuous conference debates. Labour's credentials as a credible prospect for Governmental office were thought to depend on a responsible approach to foreign and defence policy. Its exclusion from office was often said to stem from a failure to meet this test, as in the 1950s. The composition of Labour Cabinets was powerfully influenced by foreign and defence considerations, as was the centralization of power and decision-making within Labour Governments. The domestic achievements and failures of these periods in office were inextricably connected to international questions.
The Labour Party and Foreign Policy is recommended for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in British politics and European history.
Once teetering on the brink of oblivion, the British Liberal Party has again re-established itself as a major force in national and local politics. David Dutton's approachable study offers new insights into the waning, near death and ultimate recovery of the Liberal Party from 1900 to the present day. Discussions of politics, philosophy and performance are all skilfully interwoven as Dutton demonstrates how the party has become, once more, a formidable player on the political stage.
Theatre in London has celebrated a rich and influential history, and in 1976 the first volume of J. P. Wearing's reference series provided researchers with an indispensable resource of these productions. In the decades since the original calendars were produced, several research aids have become available, notably various reference works and the digitization of relevant newspapers and periodicals. This second edition of The London Stage 1910-1919: A Calendar of Productions, Performers, and Personnel provides a chronological calendar of London shows from January 1910 through December 1919. The volume chronicles more than 3,000 productions at 35 major central London theatres during this period. For each entry the following information is provided: *Title *Author *Theatre *Performers *Personnel *Opening and closing dates *Number of performances Other details include genre of the production, number of acts, and a list of reviews. A comment section includes other interesting information, such as a plot description, first-night audience reception, noteworthy performances, staging elements, and details of performances in New York either prior to or after the London production. Among the plays staged in London during this decade were Chu Chin Chow, The Gaol Gate, Hindle Wakes, Justice, Kismet, Pygmalion, and Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, as well as numerous musical comedies (British and American), foreign works, operas, and revivals of English classics. A definitive resource, this edition revises, corrects, and expands the original calendar. In addition, approximately 20 percent of the material-in particular, information on adaptations and translations, plot sources, and comments-is new. Arranged chronologically, the shows are fully indexed by title, genre, and theatre. A general index includes numerous subject entries on such topics as acting, audiences, censorship, costumes, managers, performers, prompters, staging, and ticket prices. The London Stage 1910-1919 will be of value to scholars, theatrical personnel, librarians, writers, journalists, and historians.
Encourage your child to explore the wondrous world of make-believe as toys come alive before their eyes. This storybook includes four much-loved tales accompanied by beautiful illustrations, and will inspire young readers to develop a life-long love of reading.
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